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Angioedema Due to Acquired Deficiency of C1-Inhibitor: A Cohort Study in Spain and a Comparison with Other Series

Published:November 26, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2021.11.018

      Background

      Data on acquired angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE) from 4 European countries (France, Italy, Germany, and Hungary) were recently published.

      Objective

      To report data from a group of 50 patients with acquired C1-INH deficiency from Spain, of whom 46 had angioedema, and compare them with other European series.

      Methods

      We performed a retrospective observational study of 46 patients with C1-INH-AAE and 4 asymptomatic patients. Clinical and biological characteristics and associated diseases were assessed and compared with other European series.

      Results

      Women accounted for 73.9% of cases. The prevalence of C1-INH-AAE related to hereditary forms was 1/10.1. Overall, 8.7% patients were aged <40 years. Diagnostic delay was 1.1 years. Angioedema mainly affected the face (91.3%), followed by the oropharynx (63%), extremities (50%), and abdomen (37%). Only 1 patient underwent orotracheal intubation. Erythema marginatum was present in 1 patient. A hematologic disorder was recorded in 50% of patients. Angioedema preceded all benign conditions, mostly monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, but appeared very close to or after malignant hematologic diseases (median, 2.2 and 0.29 years). Autoimmune diseases were associated in 50% (autoimmune thyroiditis, 21.5%; systemic lupus erythematosus, 10.9%). Half of them coexisted with hematologic disorders. Anti-C1-INH antibodies were found in 67% of tested patients and were not related to the associated disease. Long-term prophylaxis was necessary in 52.2%, most of whom responded to tranexamic acid.

      Conclusions

      This study emphasizes the possibility of C1-INH-AAE in patients younger than 40 and in autoimmune diseases other than systemic lupus erythematosus such as autoimmune thyroiditis.

      Key words

      Abbreviations used:

      ACEi (Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), Ag-C1-INH (Antigenic C1-inhibitor), C1-INH-AAE (Acquired angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency), C1-INH (C1-inhibitor), C1-INH-HAE (Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency), f-C1-INH (Functional C1-inhibitor), IQR (Interquartile range), MALT (Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue), MGUS (Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance), nC1-INH-HAE (Hereditary angioedema with normal C1-inhibitor), pdC1-INH (Plasma-derived C1-inhibitor), SLE (Systemic lupus erythematosus), SD (Standard deviation)
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